Sasquatch Coffee

News On Mokele-Mbembe Research

Posted by: Loren Coleman on December 30th, 2009

Mokele-mbembe

William Gibbons exclusively shares with Cryptomundo his insights and clarifications on some of the details on he and his associates’ reseach and subsequent findings on Mokele-mbembe and the N’goubou:

MOKELE-MBEMBE/LA’KILA-BEMBE

There have been a handful of Western eye-witnesses who have observed these animals since the 1950. That is, witnesses that we know of. They include a Knight of the Realm, a British Aristocratic big game hunter, two British engineers and two big game hunters (one South African and the other French). Given the remoteness of the areas in Equatorial Africa where the animals are reputed to live, including the natural hostility of the area, such a venomous reptiles, disease carrying insects and othe hazards, it is very difficult to remain in such a location for very long.

The native eye-witnesses that have observed Mokele-mbembes and other strange or unverified animals possess no televisions, radios, books, magazines and are otherwise illiterate, apart from the view who attend state public schools, which are little more than empty brick building with a blackboard and a few tattered French language textbooks. None on dinosaurs or other forms of “pre-history”, I should mention. The pygmies in particular, who are the most knowledgeable on the local flora & fauna, spend their lives within their communal villages, venturing out into the rivers and forests to hunt, fish, and gather various herbs and edible plants. It is during these extended periods of time (sometimes several weeks), that they observe animals that they later describe to us upon enquiry. other eye-witnesses include, military personnel, river boat officers and government officials who are posted to the more remote villages on the river system. We have made a point of venturing into more remote areas on the river where we have sought out first-hand eye-witnesses, especially those who have never been questioned by outsiders before on La’Kila-bembe and other animals that are currently unverified by zoology. They are not paid or rewarded for their information, and are often puzzled by our desire to locate and observe these animals. Mokele-mbembes/La’Kila-bembes are a problem they could do without – they do not like these animals and avoid them at all costs.

The eye-witnesses who describe Mokele-mbembes to us are subjected to a picture test, which includes images of North American animals such as the bear, the moose and the beaver. All of these animals are unkown to our informants and always draw a blank. We then show them images of well known African animals, such as the gorilla, chimpanzee, elephant, hippos, crocodile, and the giraffe. The Baka people recognise all of them with the exception of the giraffe, which occurs only in the northern tip of Cameroon on the border with Nigeria, an area where the Baka do not frequent. We then showed them pictures of some extinct animals, such as the T-rex, Stegosaurus, various Pteranodons and the Triceratops. Almost all of these drew a blank, except the Triceratops which bore a VAGUE resemblance to a horned animal that lives in the savannah area between Cameroon and the Central African Republic, and was reputed to attack and disembowel elephants.

When we ask them to draw a La’Kila-bembe on the ground (as the animal is known in southern Cameroon), almost all first hand eyewitnesses drew a distinctive sauropod-like image. When we then showed the Baka various images of different sauropod dinosaurs. The Brachiosaurus and the Diplodocus were instantly picked out for two reasons. The Diplodocus had a long neck and tail like a La’Kila-bembe, but the Brachiosaurus image revealed dermal spikes, which the La’Kila-bembe also possesses. The image from Roy Mackals Book of a “pygmy” sauropod was rejected by our informants as it was “too small” to be a La-Kila-bembe, but more in keeping with the size of a juvenile specimen. these have been observed with a protective adult on at least two occasion in the Dja River.

To answer those skeptics who claim that Mokele-mbembe is a mythical animal, it is obvious that they have never set foot in Africa. If this animal was a mythical reconstruction, it would be confined to one particular cultural group. Similar animals have been reported by a dozen different ethnic and cultural groups throughout the Congo Basin countries. They all have different names for them, but the descriptions remain almost exactly the same. These details will be covered in detail in my new book, which lists no less that 15 different tribal names for these animals.

Here is what we know about the mysterious La’Kila-bembe so far: the mature specimens possess armoured skin, not unlike a crocodile, its size ranges from between a hippo and an elephant, its diet is entirely vegetable, it possesses a small head, rather very similar to a python (the nostrils are placed on the front of the snout), its neck is very long and thin and held high. The tail is also long and thin. It can also hide underwater like a hippo, but it is extremely hostile towards elephants, hippos and unwary canoes approaching them. The caves we discovered in the Dja were supposedly used by the animals to repose during the dry season. The females also construct large nests in the swamps where they rear their young. Those eye witnesses who have observed the animals mating state that the male of the species possess dermal frills but have a shorter neck than the females, who do not possess dermal frills. This is clear reference to sexual dimorphism within a species.

Regarding the live birth theory, this is all that it is at present – mere speculation. However, live births among certain lizards, skinks and constricting snakes is well documented. Paleontology has thus far revealed that almost all known species of sauropod were egg layers. Paleontologist Robert Bakker has argued that the large pelvic canals found in sauropods may argue in favor of live births. Some modern viviparous reptiles do give birth to live young, such as certain skinks, Jacksons Chameleon, all boas, vipers, and garter snakes. In the case of Reptile viviparity, the eggs are retained in the maternal oviducts and hatch in uterus before birth, but whether or not this is the case with Mokele-mbembe remains a mystery. If Mokele-mbembe is an egg layer, then these could be consumed by large monitor lizards and the python, and the surviving offspring may still be vulnerable to large predators such as the Nile crocodile. This may account for the apparent rarity of juvenile specimens that successfully grow to maturity The information on live mokele-births has come from a few Baka hunters who have seen female La’Kila-bembes with one young calf, but only very rarely. The 20 year reproduction gap for the La’Kila-bembe is of course a mere theory at this point, but not completely unknown in the world of reptiles. The Tuatara of New Zealand belongs to the ancient order of Sphenodontia and reproduce very slowly, taking ten years to reach sexual maturity. La’Kila-mbembes may be in the same boat (if it too belongs to a relic species), but the absence or rarity of offspring maybe due to them falling prey to large crcodiles, or is perhaps an indication that the animals, whatever they are, are now nearing their eventual exctinction. We hope that this is not the case.

In conclusion all we can say with certainty is, that the Mokele-mbembe/La’Kila-bembe’s are undoubtedly living but very rare semi-aquatic animals, the description of which do not correspond with any known living animal within the current repertoire of contemporary zoology. Each expedition brings us closer to our prey. Hopefully, we will have something more concrete for you in November 2010.

“MonsterQuest” broadcast their new program on Mokele-mbembe on June 24th, 2009. Below is a photo of one of the guides during the MQ expedition.

Mackal

Roy Mackal, shown above in the Congo, in search of Mokele-mbembe, during one of the modern classic expeditions covered by the original “In Search Of” television series.

Mokele-mbembe with hippo art, at top, courtesy of Bill Rebsamen. Click on illustration for a larger view.

EMELA-NTOUKA/N’GOUBOU

Regarding the Ngoubou/Emela-ntouka, it would not suprise me if this animal was a rhino of some kind – perhaps even a new species. The game wardens in South Africa’s Kruger National Park have witnessed some epic battles between rhinos and elephants when the two encounter one another at water holes. The elephants however, always win. Perhaps the Ngoubous are faring better against the smaller less aggressive forest elephants in Congo and Cameroon. The savannah dwelling Ngoubous are described as being heavily armored, with a beaked mouth, up to six horns (or spikes) protruding from is head/neck area, and a thin tail like an elephant. The animal is also said to give birth to a single calf. All these factors tell me that the savannah Ngoubou is most likely a mammal of some kind, and possibly a very rare species of aggressive, armoured rhino. An unusual rhino perhaps, but a rhino just the same. It would nevertheless make a fascinating discovery, considering that they are shot for food from time to time.

The river N’Goubous are described as possessing from one to two horns (again, sexual dimorphism?)and can hide under water like a hippo. A two horned specimen was trapped and killed in a Baka elephant trap as it exited the Boumba River in 1996. We are now setting up a reward system for the Baka for any physical evidence they can keep for us, such as a horn, piece of bone, skin or a tooth. Indeed, anything that can yield DNA evidence.

Finally, I should mention that any discovery of a living dinosaur will not, in my opinion, prove the Bible to be a handbook on living dinosaurs, prove that the earth is 6,000 years old, or disprove evolution. The discovery of a living dinosaur will be absolutely monumentous, and I hope a huge leap forward for science in studying and learning more about these fascinating animals. I hope that my forthcoming new book on Mokele-mbembe will help to clarify this subject somewhat for all interest parties, regardless of where they stand on the question of origins.

About Loren Coleman
Loren Coleman is one of the world’s leading cryptozoologists, some say “the” leading. Certainly, he is acknowledged as the current living American researcher and writer who has most popularized cryptozoology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Starting his fieldwork and investigations in 1960, after traveling and trekking extensively in pursuit of cryptozoological mysteries, Coleman began writing to share his experiences in 1969. An honorary member of Ivan T. Sanderson’s Society for the Investigation of the Unexplained in the 1970s, Coleman has been bestowed with similar honorary memberships of the North Idaho College Cryptozoology Club in 1983, and in subsequent years, that of the British Columbia Scientific Cryptozoology Club, CryptoSafari International, and other international organizations. He was also a Life Member and Benefactor of the International Society of Cryptozoology (now-defunct). Loren Coleman’s daily blog, as a member of the Cryptomundo Team, served as an ongoing avenue of communication for the ever-growing body of cryptozoo news from 2005 through 2013.


19 Responses to “News On Mokele-Mbembe Research”

  1. SIRUPAPERS responds:

    I really want one of these expeditions to come back with something solid, Mokele-Mbembe has long been my favorite cryptid. Even more than Bigfoot or the Texas pterosaurs…well maybe the Texas pterosaurs are neck and neck, but long before I had ever heard of cryptozoology I was reading the stories of Mokele-Mbembe and hearing the first-hand accounts of missionaries coming in contact with the animal. But alas, the Congo is massive and we send few.

  2. lukedog responds:

    Gotta love possibilities of a large dinosaur living in Africa.The world would be a sadder place without this great land mystery possibility.
    Why its existence could undo the Bible makes no sense to me.[being a practicing catholic] the Church has no Dogma on the age of the Earth or animals.[Just fell a little behind on the earth round thing]
    As for finding a living dinosaur, I thought my local Tutara Lizard qualified?

  3. Kronprinz_adam responds:

    I saw once an spanish program called “Cuarto Milenio” (4th Milennia), in which an independant spanish expedition was sent into the region. I compared the results with “Monster Quest”.

    1. In Monsterquest, natives drew in the sand some kind of brontosaurus…
    2. In Cuarto Milenio, the natives described a different animal, they rejected the brontosaurus and they described…a rhino-like animal.

    I suppose the programs interviewed people from different locations and maybe tribes. The theory of Cuarto Milenio, is that there was some kind of water rhino with horns living in Central Africa. They assumed, that Mokele Mbembe, according to the descriptions that “their” natives gave, was a water rhino more similar to asian rhinos.

    I think personally there have to be several large species, maybe going undiscovered in that region of Africa!!
    Greetings.
    K. A.

  4. red_pill_junkie responds:

    It’s understandable that westerners cannot spend too much time in such a hostile environment. So: why not lend a sturdy video-camera to a trustworthy member of those pygmie tribes, so they can take it with them during their hunting expeditions?

  5. cloudyboy87 responds:

    Thank goodness! I’ve been wanting to hear something regarding Mokele Mbembe for months now! I love the big guys! Almost as much as Ropens. And while I dont think discovering a living dino would necessarily prove every little thing in the Bible, it would lend even more credit to it. I would love to go in search of living dinos one day in a far off jungle, but for right now I’ll have to settle with remembering my own sighting..Im glad they are making another expedition so soon, I was worried it would be years before the next one. I’m glad they got funding! I can’t wait ’til they come back with concrete evidence so all us believers can show and tell others that “see! theres really good reason to believe in these creatures.”
    I think we’re getting very close to discovering a new large, believed extinct animal within a decade, here’s to hoping.

  6. wgibbons responds:

    kronprinz_adam – You have reaised an interesting point. The name “Mokele-mbembe” is a Lingala term. It is the only name for the animal in Lingala and means, One who stops the flow of rivers.” It does not mean “blocker of rivers,” “eater of palms,” “rainbow” or any other invention that has circulated the Internet over the years.

    There are at least 15 different tribal names for long-necked, sauropod-like animals stretching from Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Sudan, Uganda and Zambia. There are all listed in my book along with the name of the individual tribes, their locations and languages or dialogues spoken.

    The confusion concerning Mokele-mbembe being described as a sort of aquatic rhino is easily explained. There are those tribal groups living in the Congo Republic that use the name “Mokele-mbembe” in a generic sense. They have not seen the Mokele-mbembe proper but are familiar with the aquatic horned animal. When white outsiders arrive and start asking questions about a feared aquatic animal that can kill hippos, the tribal group immediately refer to the animal that they are most familiar with (aquatic rhino) and use the name Mokele-mbembe in a generic sense as this is the name the white visitors are throwing around. A case in point concerns “cryptozoologist” Josh Gates of the TV show Destination Truth. He shows up at Lake Bangwuelu in Zambia and starts asking the natives about “Mokele.” The people in this area are not Lingala speakers. They are the Bemba people who speak the Chibemba language. The long-necked animal observed from time to time in the lake is known as Mbilintu, a specimen which was observed by Englishman Alan Brignall during a fishing expedition to the lake in 1954. Proper research is everything and helps to avoid making a fool of yourself in front of tribespeople who haven’t a clue what you are talking about.

    The aquatic horned animal is again known from several different area in the Congo Basin, Gabon, Cameroon and Zambia. There are no less than eight different names that describe a single or twin-horned aquatic animal that kills elephants and hippos. They also range from single horned to twin horned animals (side-by-side). Our informants repeatedly picked out illustrations of the Arsinotherium as most like the twin-horned N’Goubou of Cameroon.

    The savannah N’goubou is again different entirely, but its all in the book!

    Bill

  7. Arctodus responds:

    Robert Bakker no longer argues in favor of live birth among sauropods I believe. We’ve discovered “Toni,” a very small, yet already ontologically developed juvenile sauropod. The level of development indicates that Toni was quite small at hatching; probably no larger than that woman’s torso in the picture.

    Toni is a diplodocid, one of the sauropod groups bakker was arguing in favour of live-birth. The other was macronarian brachiosaurs. Brachiosaurs and titanosaurs are sister-groups. We’ve found several nesting sites, eggs and embryos belonging to titanosaurs over the past few decades.

    Aside from that, no modern Archosaurs (Crocs, Birds) has live birth. Indeed, Archosaurs and their sister-group, Chelonians (turtles) may be incapable of it due to the way they construct eggs in the reproductive tract. Parsimony demands that we accept the most likely scenario, that all archosaurs, past and present, cannot give live birth.

    However…..that doesn’t mean there aren’t ways around this, look at the *Aptenodytes* penguins, which have pouches to keep their eggs in. Speculate as you will ;-)

    By contrast, lepidosaurs (tuataras and squamates), “amphibians” and fish have independently evolved some form of live birth hundreds of times. Mammals are a harder nut to crack, we only have Theria and Monotremata exant today. From what we can see and speculate, live-birth among synapsids may have not occurred until the evolution of Theria.

    To get back on point, the mokele-mbembes seem much more likely to be very odd mammals, possibly very weird xenarthrans (explains the scutes) or perhaps some very weird lepidosaur or some other none archosaurian sauropsid.

    If they do turn out to be live-birthing sauropod, I will be astonished on the one hand, and very unsurprised on the other. A live-birthing sauropod that has just a rare few offspring at a time explains perfectly why they haven’t overrun the world after the K/Pa extinction event once more.

    If typical egg-laying sauropods had survived the extinction event, each mature female would probably be laying clutches of 20 to 100 eggs several times each breeding season. Even if 90% of the eggs and 90% of surviving hatchlings died before reproductive age, that would still be a predator swamping on such a massive scale that there is no possibility that gigantic sauropod mimicking mammals like elephants and indricotheres could’ve ever achieved dominance. The Cenozoic would still be the age of Mammals, but Sauropods would rule as our elephants.

  8. cloudyboy87 responds:

    I fully intend to save up money one day and help with an expedition searching for Mokele Mbembe or Ropens. I’m sure I could offer alot but that’s just my opinion. I think it would be worth the many risks just to be able to catch and photograph not only the cryptids but the plethora of exotic animals, especially reptiles :)

  9. cryptidsrus responds:

    Like I’ve said before, Mokele_mbembe has always been one of my favorite cryptids. Great interview with Gibbons and great insights. Sorry, just don’t think of most of these native peoples as “lying” or “mistaken.”
    I think they are seeing the real deal.

    And Red_Pill_Junkie, that is a GREAT idea you have. Maybe somebody in Africa will take the time to implement it properly. Although with many things in Crypto research, I would not be surprised if some “mistakes” are made.
    Hopefully, not.

    To be honest, discovering a living Sauropod in the jungles of Africa would not necessarily “prove” the Bible. All it would necessarily prove is that a supposedly extinct Dinosaur creature managed to survive for millions of years in a “Closed,” “Isolated” environment without being detected or dying out.

    At least, that is what the majority of “Scientists” and “Experts” would basically say, I guess. Personally I’m NOT a Darwinist and I’m NOT an atheist and I DO believe incidents in the Bible are based on real events. I’m not a Literalist-Fundamentalist-Evangelical, though.

    The discovery would revolutionize the way we look at our world and how Scientists develop “Theories,” though. That would be good.

  10. wgibbons responds:

    Good comments from everyone. I am sure I do not have to convince anyone here concerning my own assertion that “MM” is a living animal. To put the record straight concerning another post on this topic from a different blog, we are not interviewing the same informants “over and over,” or dealing with the same pygmies that Roy Mackal originally interviewed in 1981! Some of those eye-witnesses are now deceased. One of our most important eye-witnesses, a pastor from the Bomwali tribe in eastern Cameroon, unexpectedly died after a short illness last year. He was to accompany us on a river expedition in 2010. Such is life in Africa. Many of our most vocal critics (usually those who have never set foot anywhere in Africa) simply do not understand that vastness of the area we are dealing with, including the large number of different ethnic and tribal groups that report animals that are remarkably like Mokele-mbembes, which may be one and the same type of animal but referred to by different tribal names.

    The various locations where long necked aquatic or semi-aquatic animals are most commonly reported, comprise of the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa), Gabon, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Uganda, the Sudan and Zambia. The Congo Basin countries alone are populated (collectively) by over 59,589,631 people, speaking a total of 729 different ethnic and tribal languages. Very few of these groups, particularly those who live in the most remote villages and settlements, have any regular contact with one another. Although the official languages of most modern African states are the mother tongues of their former colonial rulers, such as English, French and Portuguese, the traditional languages are mostly spoken more remote and rural areas. In Cameroon, for example, over 279 tribal languages are still widely spoken. In the Republic of the Congo, 51 different native tongues are spoken, compared to 242 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 40 in Gabon and 34 in Guinea, with at least one hundred more minor ethnic dialects scattered across the Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Equatorial Africa is populated by a vast variety of different ethnic and tribal groups, all with their own unique religious beliefs and social structures. If Mokele-mbembe
    was a mere religious or cultural phenomenon, it would largely be confined to one particular ethnic group, whether it is the Fang tribe of Gabon, the Mongo tribe of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, or the Bamileke tribe of Cameroon. The very idea that certain tribes are merely making up stories of fearsome river monsters to keep rival ethnic groups out of their territory, groups whose very language, cultural and religious beliefs differ vastly from one another, is a palpable absurdity. In the Likouala region alone, several Bantu languages are active, including Bomitaba, Bekwil, Bomwali, Bonjo, Diboli, Fang, Gbava, Koko, Mbandja, Monzombo, Mpywmo, Ngundi, Ngabaka, and Pomo. Of these, only three are part of the Damawa-Ubangi language family, while the rest are localized Bantu languages with a few that belong to the Niger-Congo language group.

    The pygmies, who are as unique from one another as are the various African (Bantu) tribes, are also split into various tribes and cultural groups. For example, the Mbenga pygmies who inhabit the western region of the Congo Basin, speak Lingala and differ from the Bi-Baya pygmies of southern Cameroon and northern Congo who speak Baka. The Mbuti pygmies of the Ituri Forest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, speak BaBila, which is again different from the Efe tribe who also live in the Ituri, but speak a Central Sudanic language related to Mangbutu, which part of a Nilo-Saharan language group. The Kango pygmies, who inhabit the western Ituri Forest speak Komo, which is distantly related to a Bantu language. The Aka, who inhabit the Central African Republic, speak a similar language to Lingala, but are again quite different from the Twa pygmies who inhabit parts of Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda, and speak the Kirundi and Kinyarwanda languages. Once again, the notion that from time to time, that differing groups of
    pygmies from all backgrounds sharing stories about a giant hippo killing, plant eating monster that inhabits the rivers, lakes and swamps over an area stretching 800,000 square miles, and long before the white man arrived on the scene, is highly unlikely in the extreme. Nor do I believe that the eye-witnesses have simply mistaken known African animals for a well known African. Those who hunt, fish and forage in the river system and forests of Equatorial Africa are perfectly familiar with all the animals of these regions, whether or not they are known to the whiteman. They have no reason to lie as we do not pay them for the information they provide. They simply report their encounters or observations to us upon enquiry and couldn’t care less what outsiders think. Sooner or later we WILL make that breakthrough. And so to that end we press on.

    Happy New Year everyone. Let’s hope that 2010 will bring us new and exciting discoveries.

  11. Dj Plasmic Nebula responds:

    To Red Pill Junkie I agree with you. They should of lend a video camera to a trust worthy tribe.

  12. gkingdano responds:

    I WANT to believe in these animals. First, I think the reward system is the most likely way we will find the animals for the scientific world. A camera with anyone in the moist humid jungle probably would not last long. Second, I think that these animals are more likely mammals than a reptile. And most large mammals only have a very few offspring over a large number of years. I think that twins in elephants is Very rare. Hopefully over the next couple of years, as the news of a reward for any piece of one of these gets around on the jungle drum-line, some part may make it out to science. It would set the finder up for many years instead of just a couple of meals.

  13. cliff responds:

    I know this is being nit-picky, but the author mentions that “all” boas bear live young, but that’s not completely accurate. It is true that most boas bear live young, but there are actually 3 species of boa that lay eggs: the Calabar Boa (Calabaria reinhardtii, formerly classified as a python for this reason), the Arabian Sand Boa (Eryx jayakari), and the West African Sand Boa, (Eryx muelleri). Again, I realize that this may be taking nit-picking to the extreme, but I believe inaccurate information tends to sometimes discredit otherwise well-written articles.

  14. cloudyboy87 responds:

    Yes those boas do lay eggs, but I personally don;t think that a simple error in a statement such as that should discredit all the info he has collected. But I’m sure there are plenty of skeptics that would disagree sadly..I personally pretty sure they do lay eggs but that’s just me, we won’t really know until we prove the animals’ existence.

  15. cliff responds:

    No, you’re right, it certainly SHOULDN’T discredit their research or findings, but prior to writing a statement like “all boas bear live young” one should do their research and verify that statement and not give anyone looking to discredit the writer any unnecessary ammunition. Again, as a herper I was just being nit picky, but that statement jumped out at me immediately as being incorrect. I’m guessing the person who wrote the article is somewhat aware of the different species of boas and pythons in the area of the expedition, as well they should be because some of those can be just as dangerous as the venomous specimens. Especially the African Rock Pythons, looking those things in the eyes is like staring at the devil to me, they just look evil. I’ll stick with my smaller boa species like Dumeril’s, Hogg Island, and the Pacific Ground Boas, lol.

  16. cloudyboy87 responds:

    I agree that it jumped otu to me too, I’m a Herper as well. As for the big ones looking devilish I have to disagree strongly lol. I love the big ones, I plan on getting some more Retics in the next few years, They’re my favorite large constrictors to keep! I love Ball pythons too thoguh and plan on getting several of those as well. I loved my Large pythons and boas, the only time I ever had a problem was when I occasionally made a msitake, boy it hurt..lol. But I’ve yet to have one threaten my life like a venomous snake. I agree they can be deadly but it’s harder for them to get ahold of you than a viper with a strike faster than lightning lol. At least that’s my experience.
    Although African Rocks are known for being kind of nasty..But so are Cottonmouths and it’s very undeserved.

  17. lincoln s responds:

    Everywhere else I read said ngoubou had a crocodile like tail like the mokele and it was emela ntouka that had an elephant like tail. l I feel without a doubt ngoubou is a ceratopsian but the only evidence I see against this is that it is said to give birth to live calves but I feel I should leave it at that. Also regarding the illustrations, dermal spikes are known from diplodocus not brachiosaurus, sorry about that, but that came to my attention while reading this.

  18. IndyGuy99 responds:

    I really hope that the Ngoubou is discovered! It sounds amazing! I thought that Researchers thought it was a Styracosaurus. But a six horned mammal sounds very cool!!

  19. LvngstoneJS5 responds:

    Thank you Mr Gibbons. Your work in the field of cryptozoology searching for the mokele mbembe has greatly inspried me. Keep it up!



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